How a Texture Analyser works

Understanding what a Texture Analyser is and how it is applied for texture assessment

  • Testing the textural qualities of pizza with the Pizza Tensile Rig
  • The Back Extrusion test assesses the flow properties of honey
  • Spaghetti strands tested for stretch with the Spaghetti Tensile Rig
  • The crisp snap of a biscuit is quantified using the Three Point Bend Rig
Testing the textural qualities of pizza with the Pizza Tensile Rig1 The Back Extrusion test assesses the flow properties of honey2 Spaghetti strands tested for stretch with the Spaghetti Tensile Rig3 The crisp snap of a biscuit is quantified using the Three Point Bend Rig4
What is a Texture Analyser? How does a Texture Analyser work?

A Texture Analyser is a texture measurement system that moves in either an up or down direction to compress or stretch a sample.

The travelling arm is fitted with a load cell and records the force response of the sample to the deformation that is imposed on it. Force, Distance and Time data is collected and usually presented as a curve on a graph which, when analysed, indicates the texture of the sample.

Texture Analysers provide the operators with ultimate control and test flexibility for measuring all types of physical/textural properties of solid and semi-solid systems by their ability to accommodate a wide range of probes and fixtures (devices to test food structure) that can be attached to the Texture Analyser base and/or arm.

A Texture Analyser is the source of ultimate objective quantification of whether the food is ‘more crispy, firm, sticky, etc. as a result of a new technique or the addition of a certain ingredient to the formulation.

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What does a Texture Analyser measure?

Depending upon the chosen probe/fixture, the Texture Analyser can perform compression, extension, cutting, extruding, bending and shearing tests – and in doing so, can measure properties such as fracturability, chewiness, stickiness, consistency, bite force and springiness, to name but a few.

There is a vast range of physical properties which can be measured by a Texture Analyser.

• For a review of the textural properties we are measuring most commonly, visit our TEXTURE PROPERTIES page.
Real life applications for texture analysis

Texture Analysers provide the operators with ultimate control and test flexibility for measuring all types of physical/textural properties of solid and semi solid systems by their ability to accommodate a wide range of probes and fixtures that can be attached to the Texture Analyser base and/or arm.

Depending upon the chosen probe/fixture the Texture Analyser can perform compression, extension, cutting, extruding, bending and shearing tests – and in doing so, can measure properties such as fracturability, chewiness, stickiness, consistency, bite force and springiness, to name but a few.

Why Measure Texture?

Successful production and quality control depends on the ability to measure and test at the various stages of production of a product. If you can’t measure it, you can’t control it!

It will certainly prove an indispensable tool when you need to quantify the texture or overall physical properties of your 'gold standard' product for future comparison in manufacture – the key to maintaining consistent textural quality. You could even use it to compare the texture of your product with your competitors!

For more detail on this topic, jump to our MEASURE TEXTURE page.
Typical Texture Analysis Tests

Depending upon the chosen probes or texture analysis grips and fixtures used, the Texture Analyser is capable of performing a wide variety of test types.

A comprehensive list of these fixtures and their typical application are shown on the Texture Analysis Probes and Fixtures page.

Perhaps the most common use of a Texture Analyser is in the measurement of the hardness of food or the firmness testing of products across a wide range of industries and historically popular is the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) which is a two cycle compression test which automatically calculates a range of food texture properties.

Click or tap here for an overview of TPA...

For example:
the crispiness of a potato chip from a newly-opened bag
the crunchiness of a just-picked Gala apple or Bosc pear
the springiness of freshly baked bread
the resiliency of a piece of strawberry licorice
the chewiness of bubble gum
the firmness of jam
the spreadability of ripe Brie cheese
the firmness of an old fashioned, New York style bagel

Subtle changes in a food product's formulation can change mouthfeel significantly. Simply taking out sugar and adding a high-intensity sweetener can cause noticeable alterations in texture and mouthfeel, making a formerly-good product unacceptable to consumers.

Consumer evaluation of textural characteristics and mouthfeel can be time-consuming and the data difficult to analyse, so it is extremely useful to replace this method of evaluation by instrumental methods. Texture Analysers are used to measure many properties, such as Hardness, Brittleness, Spreadability, Adhesiveness, Tensile Strength, Extensibility, etc, on a vast range of products.

For a review of the textural properties we are most commonly measuring, visit our TEXTURE PROPERTIES page.

The challenge confronting food designers who want to quantify mouthfeel characteristics using an instrumental technique: How to take instrument readings – measurements of forces, distances and other data that look like numbers from a physics experiment – and relate them to something meaningful and relevant to what people actually experience when they taste, chew and swallow a food product.

That's where Stable Micro Systems leads the way – we’re happy to help you develop the correct analysis routines to test your products.

Real life applications for texture analysis

Texture is one of the major criteria that consumers use to judge the quality and freshness of foods. When a food produces a physical sensation in the mouth (hard, soft, crisp, moist, dry), the consumer has a basis for determining the food's quality (fresh, stale, tender, ripe). Sometimes, texture is the primary aspect of the food and the main focus of its acceptability. Cucumber pickles, for example, are evaluated for quality by the consumer primarily on the basis of texture. In one survey, 400 consumers were asked, "What should a good pickle be like?" Almost 90% answered that a good pickle should be crisp, firm and hard.

Companies must also monitor the quality of their products during storage, when changing ingredients, and when developing new lines. If fruits and vegetables lose water during storage, they wilt or lose their turgor pressure, and the crisp apple becomes unacceptable and leathery on the outside. Bread can become hard and stale on storage. Products like ice cream can become gritty due to precipitation of lactose and growth of ice crystals if the freezer temperature is allowed to fluctuate, allowing thawing and freezing.

Objective evaluation of foods involves use of physical techniques to evaluate food quality such as texture analysis. Evaluation of texture with a Texture Analyser involves measuring the response of a food when it is subjected to a force, such as cutting, shearing, chewing, compressing, or stretching. Such tests are essential in the food industry, especially for routine quality control of food products.

Where will I use a Texture Analyser?

More often not, texture analysis is applied in a practical and open manner. Core characteristics are identified through sensory or consumer studies, and tests are undertaken by replicating the conditions through instrumental means.

Texture measurements can be used for:

a) Research and Development: In longer term studies to understand micro and macro structures or in the development of new ingredients or unique products.

b) New Product Development: In faster moving and shorter term investigations to benchmark key attributes. The Texture Analyser would assist in the development of products with specific consumer markets in mind and monitoring of the effect of formulation and shelf life changes.

c) Process Development: The Texture Analyser would be used in an engineering approach to measurement to form an understanding of key stages in the product process. The effects of these stages and how they can be manipulated to maximise product quality would be observed. From each of these environments a technologist would learn and transfer information to its practical application at the factory level.

Factory based texture measurements must be simple, reproducible and reliable. Factory measurements on the Texture Analyser would provide real benefits in terms of reducing product waste, production line down time and reduced consumer satisfaction from product non-conformance.

True quality control comes from the ability to use the Texture Analyser to measure manufactured products to desired quality standards and understand how you can alter the formulation or processing conditions should they deviate beyond acceptable tolerance levels.

The texture of a product is a critical consideration to the consumer – if they don't like how something feels, they won't buy it again. If the optimum physical properties of a component or ingredient are wrong you won't be able to maintain optimum processing efficiency and as such will experience higher product wastage and down time.

Worst case scenario – if you can't give the supermarkets what they want and in a consistent manner, they will simply move to a new supplier.

An instrument for measuring texture will avoid this.

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Texture analysis articles
Request an article about Emerging Technologies in Texture Analysis
Published papers that refer to the use of a Stable Micro Systems Texture Analyser:
Read our Blog posts about Texture Analysis

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Texture Analysis probes

Probes & Fixtures

The Texture Analyser uses a range of different probes and fixtures according to your specific application.

Exponent Software

Software

Whether you require a simple test and data analysis solution or a fully featured software package – we give you the choice.

Peltier cabinet

Temperature Control

If your product is temperature sensitive, we have a range of temperature monitoring and control options.


Acoustic Envelope Detector setup

Measure More than Force

By attaching peripheral devices you can collect additional measurement parameters during your standard texture analysis test.

Automated Linear Indexing System

Automation

Find out how to increase your sample throughput, walk away time and testing efficiency with several automation options.

Loadcell in case

Accessories

Our range of Texture Analyser accessories covers requirements for the use, maintenance and protection of your instrument.